By Allen I. Laskin (Eds.)
Meant for researchers in utilized microbiology and environmental engineers, this ebook covers such subject matters as environmental overview of biotechnological tactics and microbial ameliorations of haloaromatic and haloaliphatic compounds.
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Extra info for Advances in Applied Microbiology, Vol. 31
C. acetobutylicurn was grown in a yeast-extract, amino acid medium (Davies and Stephenson, 1941) at 37°C with glucose as an energy source. Samples withdrawn at times shown were analyzed for biomass (- - -), glucose, (U), pH (A),and products in the broth were butyrate (O),and butanol(0). Acetone and determined using gas chromatography: acetate (A), ethanol determinations were omitted. 5 mol of molecular hydrogen are produced; the excess molecular hydrogen is balanced by the amount of acetate made.
It was shown by Petitdemange et al. (1976)that extracts ofC. acetobutylicum contain a NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase that both oxidizes NADH and reduces NAD, the former reaction being strongly activated by acetyl-CoA and the latter reaction being inhibited by NADH very much like the situation in C. , 1973). The NADPH: ferredoxin oxidoreductase apparently works only to produce NADPH for biosynthesis. As shown in Fig. 8, there is a high net flow ofelectrons from both NADH and pyruvate through ferredoxin to molecular hydrogen during acid- 32 PALMER ROGERS ogenesis, whereas during solvent formation extra electrons flow into the NADH pool to the more reduced end products such as butanol and ethanol.
The numbers indicate enzymes as follows: (1 and 1P) NAD: and NADP:ferredoxin oxidoreductases; (2) phosphotransacetylase + acetate kinase; (3) acetaldehyde dehydrogenase ethanol dehydrogenase; (4) acetyl-CoA acetyl transferase (or thiolase); (5) three enzymes producing butyryl-CoA (P-hydroxy butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, crotonase butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase); (6) phosphotransbutyrylase + butyrate kinase; (7) butyraldehyde dehydrogenase; (8) butanol dehydrogenase; (9) CoA-transferase; (10) acetoacetate decarboxylase; (11) isopropanol dehydrogenase.