By David Banks
Using the warmth kept within the shallow subsurface for area heating (ground resource warmth) is accepted in North the United States and plenty of ecu international locations, corresponding to Sweden, and is considered crucial and trustworthy 'green' area heating expertise. in lots of countries, together with Britain, the expertise is still poorly understood and below used. this case is set to alter, even if, with the united kingdom marketplace for flooring resource warmth pumps transforming into at over a hundred% every year. This booklet bargains sensible advice and should equip engineers, planners and geologists with the basic talents to evaluate and enforce this new expertise and to introduce them to the technological know-how at the back of thermogeology.
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Extra resources for An introduction to thermogeology: ground source heating and cooling
1). 1 The thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of selected rocks and minerals. 29 × 10−3 at 1 atm. 7 – ∗ Dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl F ). 2 2 Data from inter alia Halliday and Resnick (1978), Sundberg (1991), Clauser and Huenges (1995), Eskilson et al. (2000), Banks and Robins (2002), Banks et al. (2004), Waples and Waples (2004a), and Lienhard and Lienhard (2006). Italics show recommended values cited by Eskilson et al. (2000). 1) We can also express speciﬁc heat capacity as Joules per degree Kelvin per unit volume.
Indeed, a team at Newcastle University found that thermochemical signatures of waters in ﬂooded mines in the region provided tentative indications of elevated temperatures (Younger, 2000). In 2003, a proposal was made to revive a disused cement works site at Eastgate in Weardale as a ‘renewable energy village’. , 2007). In summer 2004, ﬁve 50–60 m inclined boreholes were drilled to locate the Slitt Vein at Eastgate beneath a cover of Quaternary superﬁcial deposits. In August 2004, a deep exploration borehole commenced above the subcrop of the Slitt Vein, at a diameter that would allow it to be commissioned as a production well, should thermal water be encountered.
These fractures thus effectively act as heat exchange surfaces between the rock and the water. , 2006). Here, water is injected down a borehole, through a packer, at very high pressure. 11 (a) Flow diagram of the Nesjavellir plant, Iceland. (b) Simplified flow diagram for the district heating in Reykjavik. Both diagrams after Lund (2005) and reproduced by kind permission of Dr John W Lund and the GeoHeat Center, Klamath Falls, Oregon. 12 A hot dry rock geothermal exploitation system. inherent tensile strength and eventually creates a new fracture (or opens existing planes of weakness or joints in the rock).