By S M Yentis; Nicholas Hirsch; James K Ip; G B Smith

ISBN-10: 0702044202

ISBN-13: 9780702044205

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Extra resources for Anaesthesia and intensive care A-Z : an encyclopaedia of principles and practice

Sample text

Intoxication occurs at blood levels ~100–150 mg/dl (22–33 mmol/l), loss of muscle coordination at ~150–200 mg/dl (33–43 mmol/l), decreased level of consciousness at ~200–300 mg/dl (43–65 mmol/l) and death at ~300–500 mg/dl (65– 109 mmol/l). The fatal adult dose is about 300– 500 ml absolute alcohol (500–1200 ml strong spirits) within 1 h. Management is mainly supportive, as for poisoning and overdoses. Haemodialysis has been used in severe poisoning. Features of alcoholism require attention if present.

Dosage: 1–5 mg/kg/day iv, depending on the formulation. ● Side effects: renal and hepatic impairment, nausea and vomiting, electrolyte disturbance, especially hypokalaemia, arrhythmias, blood dyscrasias, convulsions, peripheral neuropathy, visual and hearing disturbances. A test dose is recommended before iv administration because of the risk of anaphylaxis. Ampicillin. Broad-spectrum semisynthetic bactericidal penicillin. Active against many Gram-positive and negative organisms; ineffective against β-lactamase pro­ ducing bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

Dosage: up to 2 mg/kg orally 1–2 h preoperatively. ● Side effects include dry mouth, circumoral pallor and dizziness. May cause postoperative restlessness due to antanalgesia. Has been implicated in causing prolonged respiratory depression on rare occasions. 45 or H+ concentration < 35 nmol/l. See also, Acid–base balance; Alkalosis Alkalosis. 45 if there were no compensatory mechanisms of acid–base balance. See also, Alkalosis, metabolic; Alkalosis, respiratory Alkalosis, metabolic. Inappropriately high pH for the measured arterial PCO2.

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