By Guohao Li
This booklet displays the sensible event the authors have received in reading the field girder and the truss utilized in bridge engineering; the immediately and curved field girder bridge, the truss bridge, and the arch-stiffened truss bridge are thought of, wherein bending and torsional stresses, lateral buckling and vibrations are investigated. The authors have tested a extra exact thin-walled beam idea of field girder, and, as an extension of the thin-walled beam idea, built a concept of bending and torsion of the truss bridge. Many useful examples were analyzed, and from those effects, conclusions important to layout perform were deducted.
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Elsewhere in the world, the municipal and governmental support is vital for DH development. Some privatization has materialized only after the bulk of the DH systems have been built in the first place. DH and CHP are highly capital-intensive. The private sector is not interested in starting the business, as there is no guarantee of getting the customers connected after investments have been made. The traditionally low prices of fossil fuels make it difficult for the capital-intensive DH and CHP, using the same fuels, to enter the energy market.
17 billion, up from 494 million today. China has added up to 2 billion m2 of new buildings annually, and practically all those which come to the northern-central part of the country will require DH systems to be built/extended. Energy consumption in China’s building sector has increased more than 10% each year for the last 20 years and now represents 25% of all energy used in China, a figure that will continue to rise as living standards improve. Therefore, the building construction boom is the second strong driver for DH expansion.
The MKE has a central role in developing and supporting new and efficient energy technologies, including CHP. It is, therefore, responsible for various support mechanisms. The government regulates the selection of the heating source in order to protect the environment and to have less polluting fuels, such as natural gas or renewable energy to meet environmental criteria, in particular in and near urban areas. Any organization regardless of whether it is a public organization, government-invested institution, or local government has to consult with the Ministry on spatial planning in their region and whether adoption of integrated energy supply, in terms of DHC/CHP, would be rational.