By Klaus Danzer

ISBN-10: 364207152X

ISBN-13: 9783642071522

Basics of Analytical Chemistry tend to be provided as a sum of chemical and actual foundations, legislation, axioms and equations for analytical equipment and methods. against this, this booklet gives you a practice-oriented, basic guiding idea legitimate for all equipment and strategies. The metrological foundations integrated outline strictly the figures of advantage so as to reduce confusions nonetheless showing in Analytical Chemistry courses at the present time.

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Sample text

P primary samples ... Gross samples ... Composite sample ... q subsamples of 1st degree ... ... q subsamples of 2nd degree ... (3rd degree) q⋅ r test samples test portions (q⋅ r) Fig. 4. e. { In spatial dimensions or in partial volumes of compact solids, or { In portions of bulk materials (grained and powdered substances) and { In time sequences of natural or technical processes. The technical terms homogeneity and inhomogeneity deˇned in analytical chemistry must be distinguished from the physicochemical concept of homogeneity and heterogeneity (Danzer and Ehrlich [1984]).

8 in this case References 37 (which may be caused by the sample or measurement) result in an empty intersection T \ R of the test and reference data as shown in Fig. 19D. Zadeh [1975] extended the classical set theory to the so-called fuzzy set theory, introducing membership functions that can take on any value between 0 and 1. As illustrated by the intersection of the (hard) reference data set (A) and the fuzzed test data set (C), the intersection (E) shows an agreement of about 80%. Details on application of fuzzy set theory in analytical chemistry can be found in Blaffert [1984], Otto and Bandemer [1986a,b] and Otto et al.

1986]). (3) Gradient analysis (Parczewski [1981], Singer and Danzer [1984], Parczewski et al [1986], Parczewski and Danzer [1993]) which is based on two-dimensional regression models and adds pictorial information to statistical decisions. 12 shows such a graphical representation of an element distribution on a surface. (4) Pattern recognition methods (PARC) can be used if no a priori information on the type of inhomogeneities (stochastic or systematic) is available. By reversing the aim of PARC (classifying objects into classes), homogeneity is proved by the impossibility to form point classes having signiˇcantly different concentrations (Danzer and Singer [1985]).

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